The 2020 U. S. Census recorded 118,403 residents, a 12.6% increase from 2010. The 2010 U.S. Census recorded 105,162 residents, a 3.8% increase from the 2000 U. S. Census. The 2000 decennial census found that the population of Cambridge was 101,355. The population of Cambridge in 1990 was 95,802, up from 95,322 in 1980 and down from the 1950 peak of 120,740.
The Census Bureau releases estimates of the population between decennial censuses. The 2021 population estimate, current as of July 1, 2021, totaled 117,090. The 2016 -2020 American Community Survey provides a population estimate of 117,822.
The 2020 U. S. Census found that 57.3% of Cambridge residents were White, 10.6% Black, 19.2% Asian or Pacific Islander, 3.4%% classified themselves as a member Some Other Race, and 9.2% identify with two or more races. Hispanics totaled 9.1% of the population. 55.4% of the total population was both White and Non-Hispanic. Among those under eighteen 42.0% were both White and Non-Hispanic.
The 2010 U. S. Census found that 66.1% of Cambridge residents identify as White, 10.7% as Black, 16.8% as Asian or Pacific islander and 6.4% identified as some other race or a member of two or more races. Hispanics total 9.5% of the population. 59.8% of the population identify as both White and Non-Hispanic. Among those under eighteen 46.3% are White Non-Hispanics.
Sixty-eight percent of 2000 residents were White, 12% Black, 12% Asian or Pacific Islander, 3% described their race as "Other" and 5% selected two or more races. Seven percent of all residents were of Hispanic background. Sixty-five percent of 2000 residents were White non-Hispanic. Slightly less than 50% of residents under eighteen were White non-Hispanic.
Seventy-five percent of all 1990 residents were White; 14% Black, 8% Asian and 3% of other races, including American Indian. Seven percent of all residents were of Hispanic background. Seventy-two percent of 1990 residents were White non-Hispanic.
Hispanics can be members of any racial group and are measured separately from race.
The 2020 Census recorded 49,564 occupied housing units, which is equivalent to households. This is an increase of 12.6% from 2010. (Information about household characteristics will be forthcoming in 2023.)
The 2010 Census found 44,032 households in Cambridge, including 17,420 family households or 39.6% or the total. The 2000 U. S. Census recorded 42,615 households in Cambridge, including 17,595 families, 41.3% of the total. The 1990 U. S. Census recorded 39,405 households in Cambridge, including 17,575 families, 44.6% of the total.
The 2016 -2020 American Community Survey reported 47,449 households, including 20,148 family households or 42% of the total.
Results reported by the 2020 Census to date found that the average household size came to 2.19 persons. This figure might be subject to revision by forthcoming 2020 Census data releases.
The average household size reported by the decennial census was 2.00 persons in 2010, 2.03 persons in 2000, and 2.08 persons in 1990.
The 2016 - 2020 American Community Survey reports that the average household size was 2.13 persons and the average family size was 2.82 persons.
As of the 2020 Census, 16,550 residents reside in group quarters or 13.9% of the total population. As of the 2010 Census 17,102 Cambridge residents or 16.3% of the total, lived in group quarters. As of the 2000 Census 14,663 Cambridge residents, or 14.5%, lived in group quarters.
Residents of group quarters include all persons residing in dormitories, hospitals, nursing homes, jails and group homes. All persons who do not reside in group quarters reside in households. The majority of group quarters residents, over 93% of those recorded in 2020, were college dormitory residents.
The 2021 Town Gown Reports filed by educational institutions in Cambridge reported 5,114 dormitory residents. This number is unusually low, due to pandemic conditions.
In 2020 Cambridge had a population density of 18,529 persons per square mile and 8,432 housing units per square mile. These figures are equivalent to 29 people and 13 housing units per acre. As of 2020, Cambridge is the ninth most densely populated city in the United States.
According to the 2016 - 2020 American Community Survey data on the level of education, 79.1% of the population over 25 has either a four year bachelor degree or a graduate degree, 9.7% has either an Associate degree or some college course work, 6.8% has a high school diploma and 4.5% does not have a high school diploma.
According to the 2016 - 2020 American Community Survey, 24.8% of the population 18 or older is enrolled full-time or part-time in a college or graduate school degree program.
The 2021 Annual Town Gown Reports submitted by Harvard University, Hult International Business School, Lesley University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology indicate that these institutions have 12,635 undergraduate students and 21,810 graduate students attending. Of these, 3,706 undergraduates and 8,037 graduate students reside in Cambridge, either in institutional housing or off campus. The number residing in Cambridge has been depressed due to the effects of the pandemic and is likely to rise substantially in the near future.
According to the 2016 - 2020 American Community Survey, 29.2%% of Cambridge residents are foreign born and 11.1% are naturalized citizens. Cambridge has long served as a port of entry for immigrants from around the world.
Major ancestry groups reported by the 2016 - 2020 American Community Survey include Irish (10.6%), Italian (7.9%), English (7.6%), German (7.4%), Polish (3.0%), West Indian (2.8%), Sub-Saharan African (2.6%), French (2.5), Russian (2.4%), Arab (1.9%), Scottish (1.8%), and Portuguese (1.7%). Note that the Census allows people to claim more than one ancestry.
Major languages and language groups other than English reported by the 2016 - 2020 American Community Survey Public Use Microdata Sample include Spanish (7.1%), Chinese (6.4%), French including Haitian Kreyol (3.4%), Indic Languages (3.7%), African Languages (1.6%), Korean (1.6%),Portuguese (1.4%), German (1.3%), and Arabic (1.1%).
The Cambridge Public School Department reports that for the 2021 - 2022 school year over 100 students speak the following foreign languages at home: Spanish (5.8%), Amharic (3.7%), Bengali (2.4%), Arabic (2.2%), Haitian Kreyol (2.0%), and Chinese (1.6%).
According to the 2016 - 2020 American Community Survey, median family income totaled $142,889, up from $92,609 during 1999 and $80,828 during 1989 in inflation adjusted dollars. This represents an increase of 54% from 1999 and 77% from 1989 in inflation adjusted dollars. The City's mean, or average, family income totaled $193,036 for the same period.
The 2016 - 2020 American Community Survey indicates that the state median family income was $106,526 and the national median income was $80,069.
Cambridge median household incomes rose from $74,743 during 1999 in inflation adjusted dollars to $107,490 in 2016 - 2020, a 44% increase. In 1989 median household income stood at $66,983 in inflation adjusted dollars, indicating an increase of 60% since that time. The City's mean, or average, household income totaled $145,972 for the same period.
The 2016 - 2020 American Community Survey indicates that the state median household was $84,385 and the national median household income was $64,994.
All figures adjusted to the 2020 level using the change in the Research Series Consumer Price Index for all urban wage earners (CPI-U-RS).
The U. S. Department of Housing & Urban Development estimates that the 2021 Metropolitan Boston area median income for a family of four is $120,800 per year.
According to the 2016 - 2020 American Community Survey 12.0% of all persons and 6.4% of all families had incomes below the poverty line. Among families, 10.3% of those with children under 18 and 32.5% of female headed families with children under 18 fell under the poverty line. 12.2% of all persons under 18 and 9.8% of all persons 65 or older fall under the poverty limit.
Using information compiled from the Cambridge Assessing database, Inspectional Services Department building permits, Planning Board submittals, and university housing sources, the Community Development Department tallies 57,851 housing units, current as of July 1, 2022. This figure includes development completed since 2020 and units currently under construction. In addition, the total includes all graduate student apartment-style housing owned by universities, whether or not the units are tax exempt or counted as housing units by the U. S. Census Bureau.
The Census Bureau recorded 53,907 housing units using a different definition while conducting the 2020 Census.
As of June 30, 2021, the City's affordable housing stock included 8,517 housing units of all types, including rental and homeownership units affordable at a variety of income levels, with long term or permanent restrictions to ensure affordability. This represents 14.79% of the total housing stock recorded by the Community Development Department on that date.
As reported by the 2016 - 2020 American Community Survey, 65.1% of occupied units are rented and 34.9% are owner occupied (including owner occupied condominiums).
According the Cambridge Community Development Department, as of June 30, 2022 single family dwellings accounted for 6.5% of housing units, two family buildings for 12.1%, three family buildings for 10.7%, four to six unit buildings for 8.8%, buildings with over six units up to 50 units 18.4% and buildings with 51 or units 43.5%. Condominiums, regardless of their building type, included for 26.9% of the housing stock. Units located in mixed use buildings were 13.1% of the stock.
The 2021 median market rate sales price of a single family home was $1,690,000, for a two family $1,500,000, and for a condominium $810,500.
According to data collected by an MAPC-led consortium, as of the second quarter of 2022, the monthly median asking rent for market rate Cambridge apartment was $2,400 for a one bedroom unit, $2,950 for a two bedroom unit and $3,595 for a three bedroom unit.
Note that estimated median rents are based on advertised costs; they may not reflect the actual rates paid for advertised units and do not include landlord givebacks. These rates also differ from median rents for the entire stock of Cambridge apartments, which includes many long term and subsidized tenants.
The Massachusetts Department of Unemployment Assistance reported an average of 144,309 jobs in Cambridge during the fourth quarter of 2021. This figure includes only employees for whom the unemployment tax is paid; it does not include self-employed persons or sole proprietors.
The 2016 - 2020 American Community Survey reports that 142,950 persons worked in Cambridge. The ACS figure includes all those employed in the city, including the self-employed, sole proprietors, and other categories of workers who are ineligible for unemployment compensation.
Note that both these figures represent persons who work in Cambridge, not employed City residents.
In the fourth quarter of 2021, according to the Massachusetts Department of Unemployment Assistance, 40.1% of employed persons in Cambridge worked in Professional and Technical Services. Of those 25.6% work in Scientific Research and Development Services and 6.4% in Computer System Design.
Other major employers include 21.6% in Educational Services, 8.6% in Health Care and Social Assistance, 5.6% in Information Services, 5.1% in Accommodation and Food Services, 3.0% in Retail Trade, and 3.0% in Financial Activities including real estate.
On average during the fourth quarter of 2021, according to the Massachusetts Department of Unemployment Assistance, 5,582 private business establishments paid unemployment tax for employees. This figure does not include self-employed persons.
According to the 2016 - 2020 American Community Survey, 1,813 Cambridge residents are self-employed in an unincorporated business and 1,247 are self-employed in an incorporated business.
During the fourth quarter of 2021, according to the Massachusetts Department of Unemployment Assistance, the average annual wage earned in Cambridge for a full time job was $174,883.
The 2016 - 2020 American Community Survey reports that median earnings for a full-time worker totaled $79,717.
According to the 2016 - 2020 American Community Survey, many Cambridge residents work in Computer, Engineering, and Science (23.7%), Education, Training and Library (16.0%), Management, Occupations (12.9%), Business and Financial Operations (9.6%), Service Occupations (7.7%), and Office and Administrative Support (6.4%).
During 2021 the weekday daytime population of Cambridge was estimated to be 198,000 people. This includes residents who either do not work or who work in Cambridge, persons who work here during the daytime and live elsewhere, and daytime college and graduate students who do not reside in Cambridge. This figure does not includes persons visiting Cambridge to conduct business or for recreation, nor does the number include persons who pass through Cambridge on the way to another destination.
For more information about socioeconomic and demographic statistics about Cambridge, please contact Cliff Cook, email@example.com, Senior Planning Information Manager, at 617/349-4656.